Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Taliban threat closes in on isolated Kalash tribe

Taliban threat closes in on isolated Kalash tribe



For a decade the Kalash, a mountain tribe nestled in a stunning valley deep in the Hindu Kush, managed to avoid the Taliban scourge ravaging the rest of north-western Pakistan.
Visitors streamed into the valley to experience a unique non-Muslim culture in which the women eschew veils, the men make wine, and everyone worships a complex array of gods. Pictures of Kalash women adorned in an explosion of colourful beads became an icon of Pakistan's (admittedly struggling) tourist industry, and a hint at the country's tolerant vision of itself.
But the advent of some unwelcome visitors are putting paid to all that. Over the past month Pakistan's army has deployed to the Kalash valley for the first time.
Soldiers prowl the valleys at night, firing deafening volleys of gunfire that echo between the valley walls. A military camp and new police station have sprung up. Vehicles with spies from the military's secret service, Inter-Services Intelligence, jolt down the rutted roads. All are protecting, they say, against the Taliban.
In late August Pakistani Taliban fighters based in Afghanistan mounted a ruthless night-time ambush on border soldiers and police in Arandu, just south of Kalash. "They crossed the river on inflatable tubes under darkness because the bridges were guarded," said local farmer Sher Zameen, who came on the scene a few hours later. "Then they opened fire on the soldiers as they slept in their tents." Some 35 soldiers and police were killed.
The ruthless assault shattered a decade of relative calm in Chitral district. Located in the topmost corner of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Chitral had managed to dodge the trouble that racked the rest of the northwestern province – until now. It spelled disaster for the Kalash, thought to number just 3,500 people, whose idyllic mountain homeland borders Taliban-controlled parts of Afghanistan, and is feared to be next in line for an attack.
Tourism, a major source of income, has collapsed, with local police insisting that the trickle of foreigners who dare visit be accompanied by armed guards. And the otherwise peaceful Kalash are unnerved.
"I don't know why the army needs to deploy here," said Abdul Khaliq, a tribal elder who lives close to a new makeshift army base in the heart of the valley. "It's making people scared and tense. They should be up on the border, not down in the village."
Until now, the Kalash's greatest worry was proselytism. Muslim communities in nearby valleys have for years urged them urged the Kalash to abandon their religion and culture, which are quite distant from Islam. Many have succumbed, sometimes for professional advancement or to have an easier time at school or in the army. Among those left, there is proud defiance.
"People tell us we should become Muslim. We tell them to become Kalash," said Khwanza Bibi, a 28-year-old health worker, cracking a fistful of freshly harvested walnuts.
Their cultural defences were also strengthened by an unusual connection with Greece. Some scholars, pointing to the Kalash's fair-skinned features, believe they are the descendents of Alexander the Great and his invading armies.
Others dispute the theory, but nonetheless a steady stream of Greek volunteers, armed with Greek government money, mobilised to protect the valley and its rich culture.
A towering wooden museum and school – by far the largest in the main valley, Bumburet – and smart communal centre where Kalash women live during menstruation and childbirth, are the product of this friendship.
But even the Greek connection has been stymied by the Taliban.
Two years ago militants kidnapped Athanasios Lerounis, a Greek volunteer, and spirited him across the border into Afghanistan. Lerounis was freed several months later, after payment of a handsome ransom and the release of several Taliban prisoners from a Pakistani jail, according to a senior Pakistani official.
Today policemen are billeted at the Greek museum, smoking and eating in a room near the bustling primary school in the same building. The teachers are angry.
"It's not good," said one, speaking on condition of anonymity. "If the Taliban attack the police, then our pupils could get caught in the crossfire."
Then again, the Kalash have long experience dealing with odd visitors. In 2002 a Spanish zoologist who had taken a house in the valley, proclaiming himself to be a Kalash, was murdered in mysterious circumstances. Police suspected the man, who is buried in a local graveyard, of being a spy. The case remains unresolved.
Last year Gary Faulkner, a construction worker from Colorado, booked into a local hotel, armed with a sword and a pistol. In the dead of night the middle-aged American started trekking into the mountains, headed for the Afghan border, in search of Osama bin Laden, but was later arrested and sent back to the US.
"Gary was a very friendly guy. He said he had earlier worked as a killer for the government. Now he was gong to get the big one – Osama," recalled one local hotelier with a chuckle.
The recent woes have been triggered by events in Afghanistan. Since 2009 US troops have pulled out of Nuristan, the mountainous province across the border, leaving the area largely in insurgent hands.
Local militant numbers were boosted by an influx of Pakistani Taliban from the valley, where the army conducting a sweeping operation in 2009 that drove them out.
Then this year the Taliban started to strike back, using rear bases in Nuristan and Kunar to carry out brutal cross-border raids, such as the one in Arandu. Pakistan's military responded with crudely-aimed cross-border artillery barrages that have killed dozens of civilians in Afghanistan, further straining relations between the two countries.
The complex war politics mean little to the Kalash, who have traditionally felt little connection with the Pakistani state. "It treated us like animals, and this valley like a zoo," said Khaliq, the tribal elder. Now, with winter closing in, they hope that nature will protect them.
Over the coming months snow up to 15 feet deep will carpet the mountain passes leading from the three Kalash valleys into Afghanistan. For many Kalash, it can't come soon enough.
"We'd never even heard of the Taliban before this past couple of years," said Purstam Gul, a 47-year-old woman cradling a child in her arms.
Then she turned, and gestured towards a white glimmer on a distant peak. "The quicker it snows, the better for all of us."

Source: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/oct/17/taliban-kalash-pakistan-afghanistan
 

Thursday, May 7, 2015

KALASH – THE VALLEY OF KAFIRS



KALASH – THE VALLEY OF KAFIRS
Προστέθηκε από 24grammata
Minority: Kalash
Country: Pakistan
Author: Rabia Shahid
How would it feel to be part of a culture that is practiced by just 3000 people in a global population of billions? The Kalash culture is indeed unique. Situated in the midst of a Muslim majority population, the three little villages of Kalash are an excellent example of the preservation of a community which is distinct in its ethnicity, language, religion and culture.
The Kalasha community is the smallest minority in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The 1973 Constitution of Pakistan under Article 260 only recognizes religious minorities, ignoring the existence of other types of minorities. Kalash is located at a height of 1900 to 2200 meters in the Hindu Kush mountain range between the Afghan border and Chitral valley in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province , Pakistan. It primarily consists of the three villages of Birir, Bumburet and Rumbur, locally known as “Kafristan” (land of the infidels, coming from the word Kafir which is an Islamic term for an unbeliever). The valleys are situated to the southwest of the town Chitral at a distance of 40, 43 and 36 kilometers respectively.
Historically, Kafristan included the region of present day Nuristan in Afghanistan and the three Kalash valleys. It is believed that in 1320 the population of the Kafirs was 200,000. This has now reduced to a mere three to four thousand. In 1895, Amir Abdul Rahman, the King of Afghanistan, conquered the Afghan region of Kafristan and forced the Kafirs to convert to Islam. It was at that time that the Afghan Kafirs migrated to the Chitral valley to avoid threats of conversion. The people of Chitral gave them a warm welcome, allowing the community to exist and practice their religion and culture without any restraint. According to Israr-ud-Din (1969), the Kalash ruled Southern Chitral for around three hundred years, until they were overtaken by the Khowar speakers. Thereafter, some Kalash retreated to the valleys they occupy today and some became Khowar speakers and converted to Islam. The cordial relationship between the Chitralis and the Kalash people who refused to come under the religious and political influence of the Khowars exist today, even though radical Islamization of the country has posed some challenges for them. As per Kalash custom, once a person converts to Islam he or she is banished from the community and cannot revert. Today the number of Kalasha speaking converts living in the vicinity of the valleys exceeds the number of the original polytheistic Kalasha.
Origin of the Kalash community in Pak-Afghan region
The historic origins of this community are shrouded in mystery and controversy. Different theories exist as to the origin of the Kalash people, the most popular and grand being that they are descendants of Alexander the Great. The other two theories propose that they are an indigenous population of South Asia, or as suggested in Kalash folk songs and epics that their ancestors migrated to Afghanistan from “Tsiyam”, which is identified by some anthropologists as the area of Tibet and Ladakh.
There are many pieces of evidence presented by all schools of thought in this matter, making it difficult to trace the true origin of this minority. The Greek influence is found in the architecture, music, games, food, wine, and even in the blond hair and blue eyes of the Kalash. Yet at the same time certain genetic studies, like the study by Rosenberg, have come to the conclusion that this race is a separate aboriginal population with little influence from outsiders. Another genetic study “Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation (2008)” also came to a similar conclusion and categorized the Kalasha population as a separate group of people.
The Kalash Language – no written documentation
Kalash is a Dardic language which belongs to the Indo Aryan Group of the Indo-Iranian group of languages, which is itself a sub group of the larger Indo-European Group. Kalash is further categorized into the Chitral sub-group of languages, next to only one other language, Khowar. Though the two languages are different, they nonetheless share some similarities, and due to the increased interaction between the native speakers of these two languages there are now more bilingual people speaking both Khowar and Kalash as there were in the past.
The most distinct characteristic of the Kalash language, along with some other local languages of the Chitral District, is that it is purely oral and has no written manuscript. Thus all the folklore, customs and traditions have been handed down from generation to generation through word of mouth without any written documentation. Absence of a written manuscript, coupled with the fact that around four thousand people speak this language, has placed it on UNESCO’s list of critically endangered languages.
However, the people of Kalash maintain great pride in their language and the usage of this language has not decreased in the Kalash valleys over the passage of time. It is normal to see Kalash people interacting in their language in their homes, streets and markets. The most popular second language with the Kalash people is Khowar, but it is only used by people who go outside the Kalash valley for business or work, thus women and children are in a majority of the cases monolingual.
Recently many attempts have been made by local Kalash people in cooperation with foreign NGO’s to preserve the Kalash language via its documentation. In 2000, Taj Khan Kalash, a local Kalashi, organized the first Kalash Orthography Conference in Islamabad. Working in collaboration with international linguists and researchers, the first alphabet book of Kalash language in Roman script was published. Efforts are now being made to teach the Kalash people how to adjust to this evolutionary change in their language and learn how to write it. Significant research has taken place in the codification of this language; the dictionary of the codified Kalash language is even available online today, increasing the possibility for linguists and researchers to study this language in more detail.
Despite efforts to preserve the language, the community faces tough challenges in preserving it for future generations. It was in 1989 that the government allowed the Kalash to use their language as the medium of instruction, despite the uniform syllabus rule in the country. The majority of the teachers are Khowar native speakers, resulting in the instruction language to be Khowar rather than Kalasha. Thus, the major logistic hurdle in the teaching and preservation of the language is a lack of schools teaching the Kalash language and using it as a medium of instruction.
Kalash Culture: Festivals and Purity
The Kalash culture has been the centre of fascination for tourists, the British, and many anthropologists for years. Compared to the conservative Islamic majority, the Kalash valley, which is well protected within the mountains of Hindu Kush, is the home of polytheists for whom dance, wine and mingling between the sexes is not a taboo.
Nature plays a spiritual role in the lives of the Kalash people and this is reflected in the gods they worship and the customary festivals of the community. Among many festivals celebrated, the three main ones are the Joshi festival celebrated in May, the Uchau festival celebrated in autumn, and the most important Chaumos festival celebrated for two weeks at the winter solstice. Festivals are a way to offer thanks to the gods for the abundant natural resources gifted to the people of the valley. The Kalash people like to celebrate, and a typical festival involves singing, dancing, offering bread, cheese, meat or wine, and at times a sacrifice. The women of the community take active part in the singing and dancing at the festivals. Unlike Muslim societies, there is no concept of segregation in the Kalash society. Men and women freely interact with each other. Women are free to choose their husbands, while sex and love affairs are a common occurrence.
Kalash women are easily distinguishable due to their unique dress. They always wear a long black gown stretching on until their ankles. The gown is adorned with colorful beads and cowrie shells and accessorized by bead necklaces coiled around the neck, accompanied by an ornamental headdress. Men wear the traditional national dress of Pakistan with a woolen waistcoat.
The Kalash culture is very particular about the pure and impure. A particularly intriguing tradition is the tradition of Bashli. Bashli is the tradition of sending menstruating women and the ones giving birth to a special home. They can only come out of the home after the menstrual or child birth period is over. During such a state a woman is considered impure. Gods are considered pure, and between impure women and pure gods there are degrees of pure entities. A man is considered more pure than a woman, and an innocent boy would be more pure than an adult. There are also designated pure areas inside houses where women cannot go because they are considered impure.
Discrimination and attempts to convert to Islam
Kalash is a pastoral community which is heavily dependent upon agriculture and livestock. Over the years tourism has also become a major source of income for the Kalash people. However, generally the area remains underdeveloped due to its remote location and also because of the apathy of the authorities. The Kalash people are poor and face discrimination when it comes to jobs. Money that comes in from tourism seldom comes in the hands of Kalash people as majority of the hotels in the vicinity are owned by non-Kalash.
Availability of cheaper alternatives, coupled with poverty, is endangering the use and production of rich Kalash gowns worn by women, and of certain foods and drinks, especially the production of wine, which is often expensive. Infrastructure is weak as there are not enough roads, hospitals, high schools and universities for the Kalash. This forces many families to convert to Islam; a trend which is detrimental to the existence of the Kalash. The religious sites of worship are also in danger due to attacks by Islamic fundamentalists and a lack of funds for maintenance.
Lack of media causes discrimination
The discrimination is allowed to continue due to the absence of any medium of communication that would connect the Kalash communities with the outside world. There are no Kalasha newspapers, radio or TV stations. Other than a few websites personally made by some Kalash individuals, there is no official presence of the Kalash community in the media in the form of a group or organization. Any development in the area of preservation of the valley and its culture has primarily come from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and international aid groups interested in the region. Major aid and development is devoted to improving and facilitating cultural festivals, tourist information and environmental protection measures. According to Saifullah Jan, an activist who has represented the Kalash people at many forums, more resources need to be devoted to basic infrastructure like schools, roads, and health facilities to ensure the survival of these indigenous people. Also, less interference should be made into matters of farming and irrigation techniques, which according to him are something that the people are already well versed in.
Bibliography:
1. SOCIOLINGUISTIC SURVEY OF NORTHERN PAKISTAN VOLUME 5 LANGUAGES OF CHITRAL. Kendall D. Decker 1992. National Institute of Pakistani Studies Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
2. The Kalash – Protection and Conservation of an Endangered Minority in the Hindukush Mountain Belt of Chitral, Northern Pakistan. IUCN – The World Conservation Union.
3. Minority Rights Group International, Report on Religious Minorities in Pakistan, by Dr. Iftikhar H. Malik.
4. Enclaved knowledge: Indigent and indignant representations of environmental management and development among the Kalasha of Pakistan. Peter Parkes, University of Kent, Department of Anthropology, United Kingdom 1999
5. THE KALASHA PAKISTAN) WINTER SOLSTICE FESTIVAL. Alberto Cacopardo and Augusto Cacopardo Liceo Scientifico “G. Ulivi” Borgo San Lorenzo. Ethnology, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Oct., 1989), pp. 317-329. University of Pittsburgh- University of Pittsburgh- Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education.
6. Low Levels of Genetic Divergence across Geographically and Linguistically Diverse Populations from India. Noah A. Rosenberg, Saurabh Mahajan, Catalina Gonzalez-Quevedo, Michael G. B. Blum1, Laura Nino Rosales, Vasiliki Ninis, Parimal Das, Madhuri Hegde, Laura Molinari, Gladys Zapata, James L. Weber, John W. Belmont, Pragna I. Patel.
7. Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation. Jun Z. Li, Devin M. Absher, Hua Tang, Audrey M. Southwick, Amanda M. Casto, Sohini Ramachandran, Howard M. Cann, Gregory S. Barsh, Marcus Feldman, Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza, Richard M. Myers.
8. Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference – A minority perspective on the history of Chitral: Katore rule in Kalash Tradition, Peter Parkes

Monday, May 4, 2015

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I pay my condolence to whole Kalasha community on death of Kazi Khosh Nawaz Balohe of Rumbor Valley. He was the custodian of the Kalasha Dastoor and society. He was a living legend with ample knowledge of indigenous history and culture. He was a source person for many researches. He was the shaman; a spiritual leader of the community. With his demise a chapter of cultural sharing is closed. At this time of grief my sympathies are with Kalasha community and with family of Kazi Khosh Nawaz.

He passed away last night. He lived more than 100 years.
Muhammad Kashif Ali

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

The Kalash in quarantine

The Kalash in quarantine
Zubair Torwali Saturday, July 05, 2014
From Print Edition
Hardly would there be a gallery in Pakistan where the colourful portraits of the uniquely beautiful Kalash women are not displayed. At every hotel one can see pictures of the Kalash girls in their traditional attire.

The Kalash culture is among the few things Pakistan can boast of as a tourist attraction. The print media carries features on the Kalash, sometimes with some poorly researched description of their traditions, rituals and festivals.

The Kalash are usually termed as very mysterious people. Some researchers trace their history back to Alexander the Great by asserting that they are the descendants of Alexander’s soldiers who were left in the area. However, latest research based on the archaeological findings in Chitral and Swat suggests that the Kalash tribe is the remnant of the Dards – an ancient nation that occupied northern Pakistan, northern Afghanistan and Kashmir.

There is a great similarity of lexicon, syntax and grammar of the Kalasha language with that of the Dardic languages spoken by people in the region. Forced conversion in the wake of invasions by outsiders compelled the Dards to quit their indigenous worldview and shift to Hinduism, Buddhism and later to Islam. There are still many ethnic groups in the region that converted to Islam just three or four centuries ago.

Among these ethnic groups the present Kalash people have still retained their own worldview to some extent. On the one hand they are unique and add to the cultural diversity of Pakistan – and consequently to the tourism industry – while on the other they are the signposts of a lost history.

Owing to their unique traditions and way of life they are presented to the world with apparent pride. But what is missing is care, respect and development by the state.

The first time I visited the valley was in 2007. Almost seven years later I, unfortunately, have seen no improvement in the lives of the Kalash.

The Kalash people, who are now hardly 4,000 in number, are virtually living in fearful quarantine. They are the most disadvantaged members of our society who languish in utter misery, extreme social pressure and fear.

The Kalash Valley borders with north Afghanistan where the Taliban rule. The Taliban recently issued a video threat to the Kalash and other tribes in Chitral asking for complete conversion or get ready for the worst. The Kalash people are too scared to move freely in their mountain pastures where the Taliban slaughtered a Kalash youth and snatched over 1000 sheep.

The Kalash are the soft victims of a certain mindset that is hell bent on targeting the Kalash faith.

The predicament of the Kalash doesn’t end here. They are very resentful of the tourists, particularly Pakistanis, who visit their valley – not for any anthropological study. Most of these tourists merely go there for liquor and other such activities. The young girls of the area are now tired of posing for pictures while the children have begun to beg money from those who take their photos. The kalash women are also harassed by these outsiders.

The Pakistani government treats the Kalash people as show pieces. The culture, language and tradition of the Kalash are under threat and there seems no effort on the part of the government to preserve their language, culture and faith.

The government of Greece used to take initiatives to help the Kalash but since the worst depression hit Greece it has abandoned welfare or developmental work here.

Fear, pressure, stigma, neglect and poverty have become the fate of the Kalash people. If Pakistan wants to have a respectable international image, it must take measures to protect its minorities.

The writer heads IBT, an independentorganisation dealing with education and development in Swat.Email: ztorwali@gmail.com 

Source: http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-260025-The-Kalash-in-quarantine

Women at work: Meet the tomb raider from Kalash

Women at work: Meet the tomb raider from Kalash


CHITRAL:  When people who have heard of her but have not met her finally do, they are taken aback. The head of Bumboret Museum—an archaeologist no less—named Sayed Gul Kalash is not a man.
Images from the Kalash valleys portray women as a strong, confident ilk, even if the photographs are run-of-the-mill shots of festivals focusing on the colourful attire. Kalasha women come across as in control, unabashed and bold.
As does 27-year-old Gul. Working her way around obstacles both natural and manmade, Gul became the first archaeologist from the valley, and a globally recognised one at that. In 2013, National Geographic added Gul to their Emerging Explorers programme.
Digging to reach dreams
“The journey across rugged mountains to cities in the country has never been easy,” the Bumboret native tells The Express Tribune.
But that didn’t stop Gul; not even the 30-kilometre journey from her home to her college in winter. “I would just hang on tight to my bags and find my way to Chitral on foot,” around routes blocked by snow. Even on a bright summer’s day, the journey is an arduous one as worn and tattered roads greet travellers, even though Kalash is a tourist destination.
Gul started piecing together her career before she completed her Master’s degree in Archaeology Studies from Hazara University. While Gul was still in college, she worked for a Unesco project in collaboration with Abdul Wali Khan University.
As a student, her archaeology fieldwork took her to sites in Chitral and Khanpur. But Gul doesn’t like to talk about the discoveries made then as “the credit goes to the teachers who were leading the excavation.”
For her later work, in Bumboret, the explorer names at least eight sites where she made substantial discoveries in an attempt to piece together the history of the Kalasha; their journey from the town of Chitral to Bumboret and other valleys. Within the sunken village and the grave sites she discovered, Gul says she wants to be able to verify whether what oral history says is indeed true.
“They say 15,000 years ago, the Kalash ruled Chitral. In the 10th century, this ruler Rais came and drove the Kalasha to these valleys,” narrates Gul. “So we’ve only been here for 600 years if what they say is true.”
Before she joined the Bumboret Museum as a government employee (where she manages a team of nine) in the August of 2010, Gul voluntarily helped found Kalasha Dur, a museum aiming to preserve the history, culture and art of the Kalasha. Kalasha Dur, she says, has preserved the unique Kalash culture for future generations and the centuries-old artefacts are a great attraction for tourists and locals.
“Everything present there has been gathered by me and sponsored by the Greek government,” she tells The Express Tribune, dressed in her traditional Susutr (headdress) as she enthusiastically receives guests at Bumboret Museum.
As Gul is currently not involved in field work, she prefers to wear the traditional black robes and beaded headdress. However, talking to her, one gets the distinct feeling Gul would not let something as insignificant as clothing get in her way.
The intrepid woman, the explorer
Living in a wooden house in front of a PTDC motel, the archaeologist receives dozens of visitors a day and is one of the most prominent personalities of her area. “Many people think they are coming to meet a male archaeologist and are truly stumped when they come across a woman,” she jokes, making a reference to her first name. After Gul, the name Sayed will retain a more androgynous quality and might come to reflect the qualities of strength and perseverance she has used to establish herself with.
“Of course I face problems because I am a woman,” Gul replies to a question. “Is there any work in which women are not faced with problems?”
But, Gul says, for her, the problems begin and mostly end at home. “Masla sab seh ziada ghar peh hota hai.” My family is the one with the biggest issue with me working as an archaeologist, she says.
“They tell me, especially my old-fashioned paternal grandfather, ‘you dig graves while others finish their studies and join the police force.’” Gul repeats, “Masla sab seh ziada ghar peh hee hota hai.”
Gul isn’t one to let that get in her way either. “I love the challenge; they can say what they want, but I love risks.”
The role model
“Every daughter of the valley wants to become Sayed Gul and bring a positive change to their lives, but a lack of resources stops us,” says Nasira, a resident of Bumboret, as she presented dried mulberries to those visiting her home.
“I have four daughters and all of them are studying in different grades at local government schools.” Her three sons could be seen playing outside; another reminder of how the Kalasha girls or boys are not bound by as many gender roles. Nasira adds that she wants the same respect for them as Gul elicits. But the area lacks educational facilities.
In fact the population of a few thousand is still partially agrarian and partially dependent on tourism. With few opportunities to make money, many live below the poverty line. Even maintaining their culture is a burden on the Kalasha; the headdresses they like to sport can cost as much as Rs20,000, also making it a very expensive souvenir for tourists.
But after the story of Gul, many of the Kalasha are determined to overcome all obstacles the same way the first archaeologist of Kalash did.
Published in The Express Tribune, October 13th, 2014.
Source: http://tribune.com.pk/story/774389/women-at-work-meet-the-tomb-raider-from-kalash/